Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
The bi-directional relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and obstructive sleep apnea and/or insomnia in a large U.S. military cohort Sleep Health In press

Chinoy ED, Carey FR, Kolaja CA, Jacobson IG, Cooper AD, Markwald RR

Study findings indicate a bi-directional relationship between the development of sleep disorders and PTSD. Military-related factors associated with new onset PTSD or sleep disorders, such as combat deployment, recent military separation, and rank, should be considered in prevention efforts for sleep disorders and PTSD.

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Brief Report: Menstrual Suppression Among U.S. Female Service Members in the Millennium Cohort Study Medical Surveillance Monthly Report 2022 September 29(9), 19-22

Zhu Y, Kolaja CA, Stamas N, Matsuno RK, Rull RP; Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the prevalence of self-reported menstrual suppression among U.S. female active duty personnel (N=22,920) at two time points (2008, 2013) by demographic and military characteristics. Menstrual suppression increased significantly overall from 2008 (2.5%) to 2013 (3.8%) and among younger age groups (aged 18-34), non-Hispanic White individuals, Army, Navy, or Air Force personnel. The highest prevalence of menstrual suppression was reported in 2013 among those who deployed in the past year (4.7%) or worked in health care (5.1%) or combat specialties (4.7%). Increased health education is needed to support the health care needs and readiness of female service members.

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The relative impact of injury and deployment on mental and physical quality of life among military service members PLoS One 2022 Sep 29;17(9):e0274973

Kolaja CA, Castañeda SF, Woodruff SI, Rull RP, Armenta RF

Deployment and injury status was associated with poorer mental and physical quality of life (QOL) with clinically significant decreases in physical QOL observed for those who deployed and were injured, either in battle or nonbattle settings, compared with uninjured deployers.

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Association of Problematic Anger With Long-term Adjustment Following the Military-to-Civilian Transition JAMA Network Open 2022 Jul 1;5(7):e2223236

Adler AB, LeardMann CA, Villalobos J, Jacobson IG, Forbes D, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

In the Millennium Cohort Study’s third paper documenting the risks associated with problematic anger, 15.9% of active duty service members reported problematic anger two years before military separation. This prevalence essentially doubled to 31.2% two years following separation. Problematic anger around the time of military separation was associated with PTSD, depression, low relationship quality, difficulties coping with parental demands, low social support, and economic difficulties approximately 5 years later, after adjustment for demographics and baseline health. Findings suggest that training in emotion regulation may improve the military-to-civilian transition.

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Health Disparities Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Service Members and Veterans American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2022 Jul 3;S0749-3797(22)00304-X

Carey FR, LeardMann CA, Lehavot K, Jacobson IG, Kolaja CA, Stander VA, Rull RP, Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined whether differences in mental, physical, and behavioral health exist by sexual orientation among active duty and Reserve/National Guard service members and veterans (N=96,930). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals (3.6% of the sample) were more likely to screen positive for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, binge eating, problematic anger, multiple somatic symptoms, and insomnia than heterosexual individuals. LGB women reported more adverse health outcomes (overweight and obesity, smoking, problem/risky drinking) than heterosexual women. Gay and bisexual men reported some adverse health outcomes (e.g., smoking and problem drinking) but better physical health (e.g., less overweight/obesity) than heterosexual men. These results suggest that LGB service members experience health disparities, despite many having equal eligibility for health care, highlighting the need for improved equity initiatives that promote cultural responsiveness, acceptance, and approaches to support the healthcare needs of LGB military members.

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Combat exposure and behavioral health in U.S. Army Special Forces PLoS One 2022 Jun 28;17(6):e0270515

Rivera AC, LeardMann CA, Rull RP, Cooper A, Warner S, Faix D, Deagle E, Neff R, Caserta R, Adler AB, Millennium Cohort Study Team

In this cross-sectional study using Millennium Cohort Study data, various types of combat, such as combat severity, fighting, threat to oneself, and killing noncombatants, were consistently associated with mental health disorders, trouble sleeping, and problem drinking among all three Army occupational specialization investigated (General Purpose Forces infantrymen, Ranger Qualified infantrymen, and Special Forces personnel). However, with few exceptions, Special Forces personnel and Ranger Qualified infantrymen had lower prevalence of these adverse outcomes. Findings suggest that even elite personnel may be negatively impacted by experiencing combat, thus trainings and interventions focused on moral conflict reasoning and resolution may help to mitigate some of these adverse behavioral outcomes.

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The effect of combat exposure on financial problems International Review of Economics and Finance 2022 May;79:241-257

Ackerman A, Porter, B

This paper examined whether combat exposure led to new-onset financial problems and financial stress among 64,508 veterans using 2001-2016 data from the Millennium Cohort Study. The average predicted probability of developing a new major financial problem (such as bankruptcy) and greater financial stress increased 0.44% (21% relative to the mean probability) following a single combat exposure and increased 0.90% (43% relative to the mean probability) following multiple combat exposures. The likelihood of financial decline resulting from combat exposure were greater for veterans with poorer pre-deployment mental or physical health, veterans in enlisted ranks, and younger veterans between the ages of 26 and 36. These results translate to a crude cost estimate of lost productivity of at least $41 million and up to 3,629 bankruptcies for the 2.7 million veterans (1.34 per 1,000) deployed from 2001 through 2016.

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Cervical cancer screening compliance among active duty service members in the US military Preventive Medicine Reports 2022 Apr; 26: 101746

Seay J, Matsuno RK, Porter B, Tannenbaum K, Warner S, Wells N

Previous research suggests active duty service members (ADSM) experience higher rates of human papilloma virus infection and cervical dysplasia, which puts them at greater risk for cervical cancer. The current study examined crude rates and correlates of cervical cancer screening compliance in 2003–2015 among screening-eligible ADSM in the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). Most participants were 21–29 years old (79.4%), non-Hispanic White (60.6%), and enlisted (82.2%). Crude rates of cervical cancer screening compliance increased from 2003 (61.2%) to 2010 (83.1%), and then declined in 2015 (59.8%). Older ADSM and those who had a history of deployment had lower odds of screening compliance. ADSM in the Air Force and those in healthcare occupations had higher odds of screening compliance. Study findings suggest that cervical cancer screening compliance is declining among ADSM. Interventions to improve screening should target groups with lower screening compliance.

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A temporal analysis of mental health symptoms relative to separation from the military Depression and Anxiety 2022 Apr;39(4):334- 343

Porter B, Carey FR, Roenfeldt KA, Rull RP, Castro CA

This paper examined mental health symptoms among 23,887 active duty Millennium Cohort Study participants who completed a survey within one year of their separation from the military. While significant, timing prior to or after separation did not have a practical impact on mental health among all study participants, accounting for less than 0.2% of variance in mental health symptoms. However, among participants with Other Than Honorable (i.e., “bad paper”) or General discharges, timing to separation accounted for 5.1% and 3.6% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively; mental health symptoms increased among these participants around the time of separation and remained elevated in the period following separation. Increased outreach at the time of separation and post-separation is needed for service members with bad paper discharges.

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The Millennium Cohort Study: The First 20 Years of Research Dedicated to Understanding the Long-Term Health of US Service Members and Veterans Annals of Epidemiology 2022 Mar;67:61-72

Belding JN, Castañeda SF, Jacobson IG, LeardMann CA, Porter B, Powell TM, Kolaja CA, Seelig AD, Matsuno RK, Carey FR, Rivera AC, Trone DW, Sheppard B, Walstrom J, Boyko EJ, Rull RP, For The Millennium Cohort Study Team

In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Millennium Cohort Study, this paper provides a summary of the study design, key findings, and future directions. Published findings are summarized and categorized into 3 core areas (psychological health, physical health, and health-related behaviors) and several crosscutting areas culminating in more than 120 publications to date. The Study will continue to foster stakeholder relationships such that research findings inform and guide policy initiatives and health promotion efforts.

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