The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
A Decade of War: Prospective Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Deployed US Military Personnel and the Influence of Combat Exposure American Journal of Epidemiology 15 December 2017;186(12):1310–1318.

Donoho CJ, Bonanno GA, Porter B, Kearney L, Powell TM

Using survey data collected at four different time points over a 10-year study period, four distinct patterns of PTSD symptoms were observed among deployed personnel. More than 85% of participants were found to be resilient with almost no PTSD symptoms. Despite similarity in pre-deployment symptoms, those experiencing combat-related trauma had higher PTSD symptom levels following deployment across every trajectory compared with those not exposed to combat-related trauma. These findings suggest the clinical course of PTSD symptoms has a heterogeneous pattern of development, but that combat exposure is uniformly associated with poorer mental health.

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The Millennium Cohort Study: Answering Long-Term Health Concerns of US Military Service Members by Integrating Longitudinal Survey Data with Military Health System Records Military Health Care From predeployment to post-separation 1st ed. New York, NY: Routledge;2013: 55-77

Crum-Cianflone N

In: Amara J, Hendricks A, eds

This textbook chapter provides a detailed summary of the first decade of the Millennium Cohort Study. The chapter includes an overview of the study methodology and key publications including a review of foundational papers and epidemiologic studies examining the associations of military service experiences with mental, behavioral, and physical health outcomes.
The Millennium Cohort Study: A 21-Year Prospective Cohort Study of 140,000 Military Personnel Military Medicine 2002 Jun;167(6):483-8.

Gray GC, Chesbrough KB, Ryan MAK, Amoroso P, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI, Riddle JR, for the Millennium Cohort Study Group

The origins and development of the Millennium Cohort Study are described. The largest prospective study in military history was established to answer the most difficult questions about long-term health after military service.

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Self-Reported Mental Health Among US Military Personnel, Prior and Subsequent to the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2004 Aug;46(8):775-82

Smith TC, Smith B, Corbeil TE, Riddle JR, and Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Accepted without revision and featured by journal editors, this early analysis leveraged Millennium Cohort data to conclude that military members displayed stronger mental health characteristics soon after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The authors suggest this may be attributed to resilience and/or an outpouring of support for the US military mission.

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Impact of Terrorism on Caffeine and Tobacco Use Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2004 Dec;46(12):1194-5

Smith TC, Smith B, Corbeil TE, Ryan MAK, Riddle JR, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

[letter in response to "Self-reported mental health among US military personnel, prior and subsequent to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001"]

Authors of a previously highlighted article respond to important suggestions on future analyses.

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Anthrax Vaccination in the Millennium Cohort: Validation and Measures of Health American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2007 Apr;32(4):347-53

Smith B, Leard CA, Smith TC, Reed RJ, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

The largest ever evaluation of this topic revealed strong validity of self-reported vaccination, as well as unique health features of the small subset who may misreport vaccination. This work won awards at two research conferences in 2006.

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The Occupational Role of Women in Military Service: Validation of Occupation and Prevalence of Exposures in the Millennium Cohort Study International Journal of Environmental Health Research 2007 Aug;17(4):271-84

Smith TC, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Hooper TI, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Data on women's occupations are reliable, and occupational codes can be well correlated with exposures of concern. This was an award-winning presentation at a Navy conference in 2006.

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US Military Deployment During 2001-2006: Comparison of Subjective and Objective Data Sources in a Large Prospective Health Study Annals of Epidemiology 2007 Dec;17(12):976-82

Smith B, Wingard DL, Ryan MAK, Macera CA, Patterson TL, Slymen DJ, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Defining military deployments using multiple data sources is examined. Deployment timing and duration metrics, critical for epidemiological studies, are valid in the Millennium Cohort Study.

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Millennium Cohort: Enrollment Begins a 21-year Contribution to Understanding the Impact of Military Service Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2007 Feb;60(2):181-91

Ryan MA, Smith TC, Smith B, Amoroso P, Boyko EJ, Gray GC, Gackstetter GD, Riddle JR, Wells TS, Gumbs G, Corbeil TE, Hooper TI, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

A foundation report, this describes original enrollment methods and challenges of the Millennium Cohort Study. Characteristics of the first 77,047 participants are detailed and shown to strongly represent the population-based sample of the US military from which they were drawn.

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Millennium Cohort: The 2001-2003 Baseline Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the US Military Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2007 Feb;60(2):192-201

Riddle JR, Smith TC, Smith B, Corbeil TE, Engel CC, Wells TS, Hoge CW, Adkins J, Zamorski M, Blazer D, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

The baseline prevalence of mental disorders in this 22-year longitudinal study compares favorably with other civilian and military populations.

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