Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of Selected Autoimmune Diseases among US Military Personnel BMC Psychiatry 2020 Jan 15; 20 (1):23

Bookwalter DB, Roenfeldt KA, LeardMann CA, Kong SY, Riddle MS,Rull RP

This study investigated the association between PTSD and risk of developing selected autoimmune diseases among US active duty service members. Among 120,572 participants followed for an average of 5 years, risk of any of the selected new-onset autoimmune diseases was 58% higher for those with a history of PTSD compared to those with no history. Observed associations did not differ by specific types of trauma experienced. Future research is needed to understand the physiological pathways that may link PTSD with increased risk of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

View full text

Prevalence of Chronic Multisymptom Illness/Gulf War Illness Over Time Among Millennium Cohort Participants, 2001 to 2016 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2020 Jan;62(1):4-10

Porter B, Long K, Rull RP, Dursa EK for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Chronic multisymptom illness/Gulf War illness (CMI/GWI) is a signature illness of the 1990-1991 Gulf War. Using a modified CMI/GWI definition, this study estimated the prevalence of CMI/GWI from 2001-2016 among Gulf War veterans and two other non-deployed groups enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study. Overall, Gulf War veterans had the highest prevalence of CMI/GWI across the study period. The prevalence among all three groups increased substantially at approximately the same rate from 2001 to 2016.

View full text

Longitudinal Trajectories of Comorbid PTSD and Depression Symptoms Among U.S. Service Members and Veterans BMC Psychiatry 2019 Dec 13;19(1):396

Armenta RF, Walter KH, Geronimo-Hara TR, Porter B, Stander V, LeardMann CA, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the patterns of PTSD and depression symptoms over time among those with probable comorbid PTSD and depression at baseline. We found that PTSD and depression symptoms tended to move in tandem. Although many service members and veterans experienced a reduction of symptoms over time, one quarter of individuals reported high levels of PTSD and depression symptoms during the almost 12 years of follow-up. Notable factors associated with elevated comorbid PTSD/depression symptoms included older age, combat experiences, and having other co-occurring health problems. Results highlight the need for comprehensive assessment and treatment of comorbid PTSD/depression.

View abstract

Healthy Behaviors and Incidence of Overweight and Obesity in Military Veterans Annals of Epidemiology 2019;39:26–32.e1

Bookwalter DB, Porter B, Jacobson IG, Kong SY, Littman AJ, Rull RP, Boyko EJ

This study looked at how several healthy behaviors of veterans (including moderate-to-high physical activity, low sedentary time, eating little fast-food, appropriate nightly sleep duration, non-smoking, and moderate alcohol use) were associated with weight changes. Veterans who reported more healthy behaviors were less likely to become overweight and/or obese. For example, if all veterans of a healthy weight followed all six healthy behaviors, the number of veterans becoming overweight is estimated to go down by 23% and the number of veterans becoming obese is estimated to go down by 68%.

View abstract

Combat and Trajectories of Physical Health Functioning in U.S. Service Members American Journal of Preventative Medicine 2019 Nov;57(5):637-644

Porter B, Bonanno GA, Bliese PD, Phillips CJ, Proctor SP for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Combat is detrimental to long-term physical health functioning among deployed service members, but other pre-deployment modifiable factors like body size and smoking status had stronger associations with subsequent trajectories. This indicates the negative impact of combat may be mitigated through pre-deployment healthy behaviors.

View full text

Comparing Self-Reported Physical Activity and Sedentary Time to Objective Fitness Measures in a Military Cohort Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 2019 Jan;22(1):59-64

de la Motte SJ, Welsh MM, Castle V, Burnett D, Gackstetter GD, Littman AJ, Boyko EJ, and Hooper TI

This was a cross-sectional study of 10,105 Air Force Millennium Cohort participants who completed a physical fitness assessment (PFA) in 2007-2008. Linear regression was used to relate objective PFA measures to self-reported physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior, and logistic regression was used to examine the risk of PFA failure associated with these self-reported measures. After controlling for demographic characteristics, BMI, and smoking status, we found self-reported PA and screen time were associated with some objective PFA measures, including VO2Max and abdominal circumference. However, screen time alone was associated with odds of PFA failure.

View abstract

Respiratory Health after Military Service in Southwest Asia and Afghanistan. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report Annals of the American Thoracic Society 2019 Aug;16(8):e1-e16

Garshick E, Abraham JH, Baird CP, Ciminera P, Downey GP, Falvo MJ, Hart JE, Jackson DA, Jerrett M, Kuschner W, Helmer DA, Jones KD, Krefft SD, Mallon T, Miller RF, Morris MJ, Proctor SP, Redlich CA, Rose CS, Rull RP, Saers J, Schneiderman AI, Smith NL, Yiallouros P, Blanc PD

This workshop report identified key studies, including the Millennium Cohort Study, for assessing post-deployment and long-term respiratory health as well as emerging research and current knowledge gaps.

View abstract

Sexual Harassment, Sexual Assault, and Physical Activity Among U.S. Military Service Members in the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2019 Mar 2;886260519832904. doi: 10.1177/0886260519832904

Thomas CL, Nieh C, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, LeardMann CA, Porter B, Blazer DG; for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the association of recent sexual trauma with subsequent physical activity levels among service members. The findings indicate that personnel who experienced sexual assault were more likely to report high levels of physical activity (300+ mins/week), while those who reported sexual harassment were less likely to engage in medium-high levels of physical activity (300-449 mins/week), compared with those without sexual harassment or sexual assault. This study highlights how coping responses to sexual trauma among current military members may be intertwined with physical activity.

View full text

New-Onset Asthma and Combat Deployment: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study American Journal of Epidemiology 2018 Oct 1;187(10):2136-2144

Rivera AC, Powell TM, Boyko EJ, Lee RU, Faix DJ, Luxton DD, and Rull RP

New-onset asthma developed in 2.7% of men and 4.6% of women during the follow-up period, among participants without a prior diagnosis of asthma at baseline. Compared with those who did not deploy, those who deployed with combat experience were 24-30% more likely to develop asthma, even after controlling for smoking status and other covariates. No elevated risk was observed for deployers who did not experience combat. Additional risk factors for asthma among both men and women included Hispanic ethnicity, overweight or obesity, Army service, stressful life events, PTSD, and health care or other technical occupations.

View full text

Longitudinal Examination of the Influence of Individual Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Clusters of Symptoms on the Initiation of Cigarette Smoking Journal of Addiction Medicine Sep/Oct;12(5):363-372

Seelig AD, Bensley KM, Williams EC, Armenta RF, Rivera AC, Peterson AV, Jacobson IG, Littman AJ, Maynard C, Bricker JB, Rull RP, Boyko EJ for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the risk for smoking initiation by each of the 17 PTSD symptoms that characterize the disorder. No significant associations between specific PTSD symptoms and subsequent smoking initiation were observed in this study population. Among the subsample who screened positive for PTSD, "feeling irritable or having angry outbursts" and "feeling as though your future will somehow be cut short" were associated with a higher risk of subsequent smoking initiation.

View abstract

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Defense of non-U.S. Government sites or the information, products, or services contained therein. Although the Department of Defense may or may not use these sites as additional distribution channels for Department of Defense information, it does not exercise editorial control over all of the information that you may find at these locations. Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this website.

Publication badge scores are provided by Altmetric.