Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Pre-incentive Efficacy in Survey Response Rates in a Large Prospective Military Cohort Field Methods 2023 Mar 17 | doi: 10.1177/1525822X231163668

Powell TM, Geronimo-Hara TR, Tobin LE, Donoho CJ, Sheppard BD, Walstrom JL, Rull RP, Faix DJ

U.S. military and veteran populations are challenging to retain in longitudinal studies as they span the globe, frequently move, and are heavily surveyed. This study tested the effectiveness of multiple pre-incentives ($2 bill, $5 gift card, magnet, and Apple iPad® lottery entry) on increasing the response rate to the 2014 survey of the Millennium Cohort Study. Findings suggest that providing participants a monetary pre-incentive was an effective way to increase response rates and participant retention as well as re-engage participants who did not respond to a previous follow-up survey.

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Identifying at-risk marines: A person-centered approach to adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and social support Journal of Affective Disorders 2023 Mar 15 | doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2023.01.020

Reed-Fitzke K, LeardMann CA, Wojciak AS, Ferraro AJ, Hamilton A, Duncan JM, Rull RP

In a sample of male Marines (n=3,881), five subgroups based on adverse childhood experiences were identified. One in five Marines reported moderate to elevated levels of childhood adversity. A history of varying types of childhood adversity characterized by parental absence was associated with greater PTSD and depression symptomology and lower levels of social support. When attempting to identify Marines most at-risk for mental health concerns, the identification of specific patterns of childhood adversity, particularly regarding parental absence, may be more valuable.

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Contribution of Post-Trauma Insomnia to Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women Service Members: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study Sleep 2023 Mar 9 | doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsac313

Carlson GC, Sharifian N, Jacobson IG, LeardMann CA, Rull RP, Martin JL

Post-trauma insomnia contributed to the development of depression and PTSD among women service members and veterans; screening for insomnia may help mitigate the development of posttraumatic mental health conditions.

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Risk and Protective Factors for Cancer Mortality Among United States Service Members and Veterans (2001-2018) Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2023 May 1 | doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-22-0943

Sharifian N, Carey FR, Seay JS, Castaneda SF, Boyko EJ, Rull RP

This longitudinal study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (2001-2018) to examine risk and protective factors for cancer mortality among service members and veterans . Compared with those who deployed without combat experiences, non-deployers were more likely to die from cancer, consistent with the healthy deployer effect.

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The bi-directional relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and obstructive sleep apnea and/or insomnia in a large U.S. military cohort Sleep Health 2022 December | doi: 10.1016/j.sleh.2022.07.005

Chinoy ED, Carey FR, Kolaja CA, Jacobson IG, Cooper AD, Markwald RR

Study findings indicate a bi-directional relationship between the development of sleep disorders and PTSD. Military-related factors associated with new onset PTSD or sleep disorders, such as combat deployment, recent military separation, and rank, should be considered in prevention efforts for sleep disorders and PTSD.

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Health Disparities Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Service Members and Veterans American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2022 Oct | doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2022.04.034

Carey FR, LeardMann CA, Lehavot K, Jacobson IG, Kolaja CA, Stander VA, Rull RP, Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined whether differences in mental, physical, and behavioral health exist by sexual orientation among active duty and Reserve/National Guard service members and veterans (N=96,930). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals (3.6% of the sample) were more likely to screen positive for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, binge eating, problematic anger, multiple somatic symptoms, and insomnia than heterosexual individuals. LGB women reported more adverse health outcomes (overweight and obesity, smoking, problem/risky drinking) than heterosexual women. Gay and bisexual men reported some adverse health outcomes (e.g., smoking and problem drinking) but better physical health (e.g., less overweight/obesity) than heterosexual men. These results suggest that LGB service members experience health disparities, despite many having equal eligibility for health care, highlighting the need for improved equity initiatives that promote cultural responsiveness, acceptance, and approaches to support the healthcare needs of LGB military members.

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Brief Report: Menstrual Suppression Among U.S. Female Service Members in the Millennium Cohort Study Medical Surveillance Monthly Report 2022 Sept 29(9), 19-22

Zhu Y, Kolaja CA, Stamas N, Matsuno RK, Rull RP; Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the prevalence of self-reported menstrual suppression among U.S. female active duty personnel (N=22,920) at two time points (2008, 2013) by demographic and military characteristics. Menstrual suppression increased significantly overall from 2008 (2.5%) to 2013 (3.8%) and among younger age groups (aged 18-34), non-Hispanic White individuals, Army, Navy, or Air Force personnel. The highest prevalence of menstrual suppression was reported in 2013 among those who deployed in the past year (4.7%) or worked in health care (5.1%) or combat specialties (4.7%). Increased health education is needed to support the health care needs and readiness of female service members.

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The relative impact of injury and deployment on mental and physical quality of life among military service members PLoS One 2022 Sep 29 | doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0274973

Kolaja CA, Castañeda SF, Woodruff SI, Rull RP, Armenta RF

Deployment and injury status was associated with poorer mental and physical quality of life (QOL) with clinically significant decreases in physical QOL observed for those who deployed and were injured, either in battle or nonbattle settings, compared with uninjured deployers.

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Association of Problematic Anger With Long-term Adjustment Following the Military-to-Civilian Transition JAMA Network Open 2022 Jul 1 | doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.23236

Adler AB, LeardMann CA, Villalobos J, Jacobson IG, Forbes D, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

In the Millennium Cohort Study’s third paper documenting the risks associated with problematic anger, 15.9% of active duty service members reported problematic anger two years before military separation. This prevalence essentially doubled to 31.2% two years following separation. Problematic anger around the time of military separation was associated with PTSD, depression, low relationship quality, difficulties coping with parental demands, low social support, and economic difficulties approximately 5 years later, after adjustment for demographics and baseline health. Findings suggest that training in emotion regulation may improve the military-to-civilian transition.

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Combat exposure and behavioral health in U.S. Army Special Forces PLoS One 2022 Jun 28 | doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0270515

Rivera AC, LeardMann CA, Rull RP, Cooper A, Warner S, Faix D, Deagle E, Neff R, Caserta R, Adler AB, Millennium Cohort Study Team

In this cross-sectional study using Millennium Cohort Study data, various types of combat, such as combat severity, fighting, threat to oneself, and killing noncombatants, were consistently associated with mental health disorders, trouble sleeping, and problem drinking among all three Army occupational specialization investigated (General Purpose Forces infantrymen, Ranger Qualified infantrymen, and Special Forces personnel). However, with few exceptions, Special Forces personnel and Ranger Qualified infantrymen had lower prevalence of these adverse outcomes. Findings suggest that even elite personnel may be negatively impacted by experiencing combat, thus trainings and interventions focused on moral conflict reasoning and resolution may help to mitigate some of these adverse behavioral outcomes.

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