The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Prospective comparison of risk factors for firearm suicide and non-firearm suicide in a large population-based cohort of current and former US service members: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study The Lancet Regional Health – Americas 2024 June 14. Online ahead of print.

LeardMann CA, Sharifian N, Warner S, Boyko EJ, Boparai SK, Powell TM, Rull RP, Reger MA, Hoge CW, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

In this prospective study of over 200,000 US current and former service members, risk factors were similar between firearm and non-firearm suicides. Suicide prevention and intervention strategies may benefit those at risk and may not need to be differentiated by specific demographic, military, or health factors.

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Sleep Health Among US Navy Afloat Versus Ashore Personnel in the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Sleep Research 2024 May 19 | doi:10.1111/jsr.14207 | Online ahead of print

Jacobson IG, Harbertson J, Sharifian N, Rull RP, Steele CT, Russell DW

Among 4,953 active-duty naval personnel who completed the 2014-2016 Millennium Cohort survey, sleep metrics (e.g., fatigue, short sleep duration) and sleep-related health outcomes (e.g., PTSD, depression) were similar between sailors with recent sea and shore duty, while sailors with recent shore duty had poorer physical health (e.g., type 2 diabetes, bodily pain) compared with those with recent sea duty.

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Lifetime Traumatic Brain Injury and Risk of Post-Concussive Symptoms in the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Neurotrauma 2024 March | doi: 10.1089/neu.2022.0213

Jannace K, Pompeii L, Gimeno Ruiz de Porras D, Perkison WB, Yamal JM, Trone DW, Rull RP

TBI was associated with greater risk of post-concussive symptoms (e.g., fatigue, poor concentration, memory loss) among active-duty service members with risk being greater as number of lifetime TBIs increased.

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Veteran Health Administration, Use and Care Seeking Among Post 9/11 U.S. Veterans Journal of Traumatic Stress 2024 Feb 29 | doi: 10.1002/jts.23019 | Online ahead of print

Porter B, Dozier ME, Seelig A, Zhu Y, Patoilo M, Boyko EJ, Rull RP

Veterans with probable PTSD were more likely to use Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services than veterans without probable PTSD. Among these veterans with probable PTSD, those with recent VHA use were more likely to have reported seeking care for PTSD compared to those who did not use VHA services in the past year.

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Three-Item Dimensions of Anger Reactions Scale JAMA Network Open 2024 Feb 5 | doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.54741

Forbes D, LeardMann CA, Lawrence-Wood E, Villalobos J, Madden K, Gutierrez IA, Cowlishaw S, Baur J, Adler AB

Given the prevalence of problematic anger and its association with adverse outcomes, it is vital to develop a very brief measure that can be easily included in research and clinical contexts. Using data from two large military samples with current and former service members in Australia and the US, this study reported on a newly developed 3-item Dimensions of Anger Reactions (DAR-3) scale. The DAR-3 assesses anger intensity, frequency, and duration. Results were consistent across the samples in terms of the scale’s reliability, validity, and cut-off score. The DAR-3 has practical utility for military and veteran populations.

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Racial, Ethnic, and Sex Disparities in Mental Health Among U.S. Service Members and Veterans: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study American Journal of Epidemiology 2024 Feb 5 | doi: 10.1093/aje/kwad221

Sharifian N, Kolaja CA, LeardMann CA, Castañeda SF, Carey FR, Seay JS, Carlton KN, Rull RP, Millennium Cohort Study Team

Racial, ethnic, and sex disparities in mental health among service members and veterans persist, even after accounting for sociodemographic, military, health-related and social support factors. Despite increased availability to care among military populations, culturally relevant and targeted outreach are still needed to address these disparities.

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Individual and Military Factors That Modify the Association Between Recent Sexual Trauma and Health Outcomes Among U.S. Service Members and Veterans Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2023 Sep | doi: 10.1177/08862605231173909

Seelig AD, Rivera AC, LeardMann CA, Daniel SM, Jacobson IG, Stander VA, Moore BL, Millard DC, Boyko EJ; Millennium Cohort Team

Experiencing recent sexual trauma was associated with PTSD, depression, and multiple somatic symptoms (e.g. physical complaints, bodily distress). These associations remained relatively stable across demographic and military factors but varied in the presence of protective (e.g., social support) and risk factors (e.g., childhood trauma). These findings underscore the complex interplay of trauma and resilience in understanding adverse health outcomes.

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Survey response over 15 years of follow-up in the Millennium Cohort Study BMC Medical Research Methodology 2023 Sep 9 | doi: 10.1186/s12874-023-02018-z

Kolaja CA, Belding JN, Boparai SK, Castañeda SF, Geronimo-Hara TR, Powell TM, Tu XM, Walstrom JL, Sheppard BD, Rull RP; Millennium Cohort Study Team

Across a 3-15 year follow-up period, the average response rate among almost 198,833 Millennium Cohort Study participants was 60%. Factors associated with follow-up survey response over time included increased educational attainment, married status, female sex, older age, military deployment, greater life stress, and poorer mental/physical health status.

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Cohort Profile Update: The US Millennium Cohort Study—evaluating the impact of military experiences on service members and veteran health International Journal of Epidemiology 2023 Aug 2 | doi: 10.1093/ije/dyad088

Castañeda SF, Belding JN, Kolaja CA, LeardMann CA, Jacobson IG, Rivera AC, Carey FR, Boparai S, Walstrom JL, Sheppard BD, Boyko EJ, Ryan MAK, Rull RP

This paper provides an update to the original cohort profile paper published a decade ago. The Study includes 260,228 military personnel enrolled across 5 panels between 2001 and 2021 (baseline age range: 25-35 years), where participants are surveyed every 3-5 years through 2068. Longitudinal survey data are linked to administrative and medical data from DoD, VA, and external sources. The breadth of research topics has expanded over the past decade with the continued aim of contributing to policies and programs that improve service member and Veteran health and wellbeing.

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Single and repeated high-level blast, low-level blast, and new-onset self-reported health conditions in the U.S. Millennium Cohort Study: An exploratory investigation Frontiers in Neurology 2023 Mar 21 | doi: 10.3389/fneur.20

Belding JN, Kolaja CA, Rull RP, Trone DW for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined whether single and repeated high-level blast exposure (e.g., from incoming munitions) and low-level blast exposure (e.g., from outgoing munitions) were associated with 45 different self-reported diagnoses of illness and injury. Outcomes examined included PTSD, depression, hearing loss, tinnitus, chronic fatigue syndrome, and migraines. Findings suggest that blast exposure elevated risks for more than 20 different diagnoses and that repeated exposure was associated with worse outcomes.

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