Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Exploratory Factor Analysis of Self-Reported Symptoms in a Large, Population-Based Military Cohort BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 Oct;10(1):94

Kelton ML, LeardMann CA, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Bliese PD, Hoge CW, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Using exploratory factor analysis, this study examined mental and physical health symptom covariance structure. A 14-factor model accounted for 60% of the variance indicating a reasonable amount of construct overlap and that the number and type of questions appropriately assess a spectrum of heterogeneous symptoms.

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Factors Associated With Persistent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among U.S. Military Service Members and Veterans BMC Psychiatry 2018 Feb 17;18(1):48

Armenta RF, Rush T, LeardMann CA, Millegan J, Cooper AD, Hoge, CW

Among service members and veterans who screened positive for PTSD at baseline, 47% met the criteria for persistent PTSD. Combat experiences and PTSD severity were found to be the most salient factors associated with persistent PTSD; other associated factors included co-morbid conditions, sleep problems, and somatic symptoms. These findings corroborate the need for more comprehensive and accessible treatment to address both PTSD symptoms and comorbid conditions.

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Headache Disorders in the Millennium Cohort: Epidemiology and Relations with Combat Deployment Headache 2011 Jul-Aug;51(7);1098-1111

Jankosky C, Hooper TI, Granado NS, Scher A, Gackstetter GD, Boyko EJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Deployed personnel with reported combat exposure appear to represent a higher risk group for new-onset headache disorders. The identification of populations at higher risk for development of headache provides support for targeted interventions.

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Health Care Utilization Among Complementary and Alternative Medicine Users in a Large Military Cohort BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011 Apr;11:27

White MR, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Wells TS, Gackstetter GD, Boyko EJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Our findings provide evidence that CAM users are utilizing more physician-based medical services than users of conventional care. Those using CAM account for 45.1% of outpatient care and 44.8% of inpatient care, but make up only 39% of the study population. Whether CAM use is supplementing current conventional medical practice to meet the health care needs of these individuals is not fully understood.

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Health Impact of US Military Service in a Large Population-Based Military Cohort: Findings of the Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-2008 BMC Public Health 2011 Jan;11(1):69

Smith TC, Jacobson IG, Hooper TI, LeardMann CA, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Gackstetter GD, Wells TS, Amoroso PJ, Gray GC, Riddle JR, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This report summarizes findings from the Millennium Cohort Study through 2008 that have addressed health concerns related to military service. Conducting strategic studies aimed to identify, reduce, and prevent adverse health outcomes in military members have guided public health policy and will continue to affect policy for years to come.

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Health Status of Gulf War and Era Veterans Serving in the US Military in 2000 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine In Press

Porter B, Long K, Rull RP, Dursa EK

This paper describes Gulf War Veterans and non-deployed Gulf era personnel enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study. Comparing distributions of survey responses with those from a population-based sample collected by the VA, we found that Millennium Cohort participants reported slightly better health, particularly regarding mental health. The Millennium Cohort Study is an important resource for investigating the health effects of Gulf War deployment.
Hearing Loss Associated with US Military Combat Deployment Noise and Health 2015 Jan-Feb; 74(17): 34-42

Wells TS, Seelig AD, Ryan MAK, Jones JM, Hooper TI, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ

This study investigated hearing loss among Service members and Veterans. New-onset hearing loss was associated with combat deployment. Among those who had deployed, new-onset hearing loss was also associated with proximity to improvised explosive devices and experiencing a combat-related head injury. These findings have implications for health care and disability planning, as well as for prevention programs.

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Impact of Combat Deployment and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Newly Reported Coronary Heart Disease Among US Active Duty and Reserve Forces Circulation 2014;129:1813-1820

Crum-Cianflone NF, Bagnell ME, Schaller E, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Maynard C, Ulmer CS, Vernalis M and Smith TC

This study evaluated the association of combat deployments and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on coronary heart disease among a young cohort of US service members. Experiencing combat deployment was associated with an increased odds of coronary heart disease by both self-report and medical record diagnosis after adjustment for demographic, military, and mental health characteristics. Screening positive for PTSD was not associated with CHD after adjustment. This study demonstrates that intense and acute stressful life experiences may increase the risk for coronary heart disease over a relatively short period among young adults.

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Impact of Terrorism on Caffeine and Tobacco Use Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2004 Dec;46(12):1194-5

Smith TC, Smith B, Corbeil TE, Ryan MAK, Riddle JR, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

[letter in response to "Self-reported mental health among US military personnel, prior and subsequent to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001"]

Authors of a previously highlighted article respond to important suggestions on future analyses.

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Individual Augmentee Deployment and Newly Reported Mental Health Morbidity Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012 May;54(5):615-620

Granado NS, Zimmermann L, Smith B, Jones KA, Wells TS, Ryan MAK, Slymen DL, Koffman RL, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Individual augmentees (IAs), who presumably have lower social support or unit cohesion, were not at increased risk for PTSD or mental health symptoms following deployment compared with non-IA deployers. It is likely that social isolation was not highly influential among Navy IAs in this study.

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