Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
US Naval and Marine Corps occupations, PTSD and depression risk and absenteeism Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health 2014;29(2):91–112

Wells TS, Bagnell ME, Miller SC, Smith TC, Gackstetter GD and Boyko EJ for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study investigated whether military occupation was associated with PTSD or depression, and if PTSD or depression was associated with lost workdays among US Navy and US Marine personnel. Navy personnel in service and supply occupations were 85% more likely to screen positive for new-onset PTSD, while those serving in health care were 58% more likely to screen positive for new-onset depression compared to other occupations. In addition, those with new-onset and persistent PTSD were twice as likely to miss one or more days of work. This suggests that early identification and management of these conditions may improve force readiness.

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A comparison of mental health outcomes in persons entering U.S. Military Service before and after September 11, 2001 Journal of Traumatic Stress 2012 Feb;25: 17-24

Wells TS, Ryan MAK, Jones KA, Hooper TI, Boyko EJ, Jacobson IG, Smith TC, Gackstetter GD, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

It is hypothesized that those who entered military service prior to September 11, 2001 might have had expectations of experiencing a regular operational tempo and less combat compared with those entering service after this date, therefore an increased risk for mental disorders. Although measuring the direct reason for entering the military was not possible for this study, the findings showed that those entering pre-September 11 did not have a higher odds of mental disorders, suggesting that mental disorders resulting from the experience of war are common across the pre- and post-September 11 accession eras.

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A comparison of the PRIME-MD PHQ-9 and PHQ-8 in a large military prospective study, the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Affective Disorders May 2013; 148(1): 77-83

Wells TS, Horton JL, LeardMann CA, Jacobson IG, and Boyko EJ

The PHQ-9 is a validated tool for depression screening, however recently an abbreviated version (PHQ-8) is increasingly being used in survey research that excludes the last and most sensitive item. This study compared the performance of the PHQ-8 with the PHQ-9 in a large, population-based sample of current and former military service members. Excellent agreement was detected between the two instruments, suggesting that the PHQ-8 performs well when screening for depression in similar populations.

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A decade of war: prospective trajectories of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among deployed US military personnel and the Influence of combat exposure American Journal of Epidemiology In press

Donoho CJ, Bonanno GA, Porter B, Kearney L, Powell TM

Using survey data collected at four different time points over a 10-year study period, four distinct patterns of PTSD symptoms were observed among deployed personnel. More than 85% of participants were found to be resilient with almost no PTSD symptoms. Despite similarity in pre-deployment symptoms, those experiencing combat-related trauma had higher PTSD symptom levels following deployment across every trajectory compared with those not exposed to combat-related trauma. These findings suggest the clinical course of PTSD symptoms has a heterogeneous pattern of development, but that combat exposure is uniformly associated with poorer mental health.

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A longitudinal comparison of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among military service components Military Psychology 2014;26(2): 77–87

Schaller EK, Woodall KA, Lemus H, Proctor SP, Russell DW, Crum-Cianflone NF

This study investigated PTSD and depression between Reserve, National Guard and active duty continuously and dichotomously, while adjusting for deployment-related characteristics and other relevant covariates. The findings from this study suggest that Reservists and National Guardsmen do not have significantly higher mean PTSD or depression severity scores nor increased odds of screening positive for PTSD or depression compared with active-duty members over approximately 6 years of follow-up.

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A longitudinal investigation of smoking initiation and relapse among younger and older US military personnel American Journal of Public Health 2015 Jun;105(6):1220-1229

Boyko EJ, Trone DW, Peterson AV, Jacobson IG, Littman AJ, Maynard C, Seelig AD, Crum-Cianflone NF, Bricker JB

Smoking initiation and relapse were examined among current and former military Service members. Deployment with combat experience predicted higher initiation and relapse rates. Additionally, depending on the panel, prior mental health disorders, life stressors, and other military and nonmilitary characteristics independently predicted initiation and relapse.

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A prospective study of depression following combat deployment in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan American Journal of Public Health 2010 Jan;100(1):90-9

Wells TS, LeardMann CA, Fortuna SO, Smith B, Smith TC, Ryan MAK, Boyko EJ, Blazer D, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Findings emphasize that exposure to combat, rather than deployment itself, among men and women significantly increase the risk of new-onset depression.

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A prospective study of lupus and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to deployment in support of Iraq and Afghanistan: the Millennium Cohort Study Autoimmune Diseases 2011 Nov;741267

Jones KA, Granado NS, Smith B, Slymen DJ, Ryan MAK, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Phillips CJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Newly reported lupus was not associated with military deployment in support of the current operations in Iraq and Afghanistan when compared with nondeployers. Our study did note a significantly decreased risk of newly reported rheumatoid arthritis among deployers with and without combat exposures when compared with nondeployers; the reason for this finding is unknown, but may be due to a selection effect for deployment.

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Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems before and after military combat deployment Journal of the American Medical Association 2008 Aug;300(6):663-75

Jacobson IG, Ryan MAK, Hooper TI, Smith TC, Amoroso PJ, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Wells TS, Bell NS, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Findings suggest that Reserve and National Guard personnel and younger service members who deploy with reported combat exposures are at increased risk of new-onset heavy weekly drinking, binge drinking, and other alcohol-related problems.

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Anthrax vaccination in the Millennium Cohort: validation and measures of health American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2007 Apr;32(4):347-53

Smith B, Leard CA, Smith TC, Reed RJ, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

The largest ever evaluation of this topic revealed strong validity of self-reported vaccination, as well as unique health features of the small subset who may misreport vaccination. This work won awards at two research conferences in 2006.

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