The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Sexual trauma and adverse health and occupational outcomes among men serving in the US Military Journal of Traumatic Stress 2016 Apr;29(1):132-40

Millegan J, Wang L, LeardMann CA, Miletich D, Street AE

This study examined the association of recent sexual trauma with health and occupational outcomes among US Service men using longitudinal Millennium Cohort data (2004-2013). Findings from this study indicated that recent sexual trauma, sexual harassment or sexual assault, is associated with adverse physical health and mental health among Service men, after adjustment for relevant covariates. Men who reported sexual trauma were more likely to have left military service and experience post-service disability or unemployment. Results demonstrate that, among Service men, sexual trauma is significantly associated with adverse health and functionality extending to post-military life. Findings support the need for developing more effective prevention strategies and services to reduce the burden of sexual trauma of Service men.

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Sleep and health resilience metrics in a large military cohort Sleep 2016 May;39(5):1111-1120

Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Donoho CJ, Trone DW, Crum-Cianflone NF, Balkin TJ

The presence of insomnia symptoms was significantly associated with worse self-rated health, more lost work days, lower odds of deployment, higher odds of leaving military service early, and more health care utilization, after adjustment for demographic, military, behavioral and other health covariates. Findings were similar for those reporting less than 6 hours of sleep per night. Future research should focus on the efficacy of interventions to promote healthy sleep in military populations.

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Sleep characteristics, mental health, and diabetes risk: a prospective study of U.S. military service members in the Millennium Cohort Study Diabetes Care 2013 Oct;36(10):3154-61

Boyko EJ, Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Hooper TI, Smith B, Smith TC, Crum-Cianflone NF

We investigated whether poor sleep and mental health symptoms were independently related to diabetes risk. During 6 years of follow-up, the annual incidence rate for type 2 diabetes was 3.6/1,000 person years. After adjusting for covariates including mental health disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, both trouble sleeping and sleep apnea significantly predicted diabetes risk independent of these mental health conditions and other diabetes risk factors.

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Sleep patterns before, during, and after deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan Sleep 2010 Dec;33(12):1615-22

Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Hooper TI, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Gehrman PR, Macera CA, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Participants reported having trouble sleeping and getting less sleep either during deployment or after returning home from deployment more than nondeployed participants. Self-reported combat exposures and mental health symptoms were independently associated with increased reporting of trouble sleeping.

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Smallpox vaccination: comparison of self-reported and electronic vaccine records in the Millennium Cohort Study Human Vaccines 2007 Nov/Dec;3(6):245-51

LeardMann CA, Smith B, Smith TC, Wells TS, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Self-report of smallpox vaccination is very reliable. Results may be valuable in supporting global response to bioterrorism threats.

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Smokeless tobacco use related to military deployment, cigarettes, and mental health symptoms in a large, prospective cohort study among US service members Addiction 2012 May;107(5):983-994

Hermes ED, Wells TS, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Miller SC, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Chronic use of smokeless tobacco has been linked to poor military training performance, early discharge, and a host of medical problems from cancer to heart disease. Smokeless tobacco initiation occurred in 1.9% and persistent use in 8.9% of Millennium Cohort participants. The study showed that deployment, combat exposure, smoking, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder increased the risk for smokeless tobacco initiation, while deployment and combat exposure increased the risk for persistent use.

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Suicides Among Military Personnel Reply Journal of the American Medical Association 2013 Dec;310(23):2565-2566

Hoge CW, LeardMann CA, Boyko EJ

Discusses the complexity of suicidal behaviors and some challenges related to this type of research, while highlighting the strengths of using data from the Millennium Cohort to study suicide.

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The association of predeployment and deployment-related factors on dimensions of postdeployment wellness in US military service members The American Journal of Health Promotion 2013;28:2, 56-66

Bagnell ME, LeardMann CA, McMaster HS, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Granado, NS, and Smith TC

This study found that the majority of participants were well post-deployment, and military factors associated with post-deployment wellness included not experiencing combat and being trained as a combat specialist. Modifiable factors significantly associated with post-deployment wellness were also detected, including normal BMI, not smoking, and being physically active.

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The effects of exposure to documented open-air burn pits on respiratory health among deployers of the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012 June;54(6):708-716

Smith B, Wong CA, Boyko EJ, Phillips CJ, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MAK, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Burn pit exposure within 3 or 5 miles was not associated with newly reported asthma, chronic bronchitis or emphysema, or self-reported respiratory symptoms. In general, these findings do not support an elevated risk for respiratory outcomes among personnel deployed within proximity of documented burn pits in Iraq. Increased symptom reporting, however, was observed among Air Force deployers located within 2 miles of Joint Base Balad, though this finding was marginally significant with no evidence of trend.

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The Epidemiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in the US Military: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study American Journal of Gastroenterology 2016;111:93-104

Riddle MS, Welsh M, Porter CK, Nieh C, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI

This study describes the incidence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and its association with antecedent infectious gastroenteritis among Millennium Cohort Study participants using survey data and post-deployment health assessments and medical encounter data in the military health system. Consistent with other studies, the risk of IBS increased after acute enteric infection. Novel findings included increased risk of incident IBS among those with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and preceding life stressors, as well as stronger associations between infectious gastroenteritis and IBS among those with antecedent depression or anxiety. These results reinforce the need to prevent acute gastrointestinal infections and their chronic consequences among our Service members. Additional studies on the underlying biopsychosocial mechanisms of IBS may help to explain these findings.

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