Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Smokeless tobacco use related to military deployment, cigarettes, and mental health symptoms in a large, prospective cohort study among US service members Addiction 2012 May;107(5):983-994

Hermes ED, Wells TS, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Miller SC, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Chronic use of smokeless tobacco has been linked to poor military training performance, early discharge, and a host of medical problems from cancer to heart disease. Smokeless tobacco initiation occurred in 1.9% and persistent use in 8.9% of Millennium Cohort participants. The study showed that deployment, combat exposure, smoking, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder increased the risk for smokeless tobacco initiation, while deployment and combat exposure increased the risk for persistent use.

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Trajectories of trauma symptoms and resilience in deployed U.S. military service members: a prospective cohort study British Journal of Psychiatry 2012 Apr;200(4):317-23

Bonanno GA, Mancini AD, Horton JL, Powell TM, LeardMann CA, Boyko EJ, Wells TS, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) were examined over time in relation to deployment. Four classes of PTS trajectories were identified for both single and multiple deployers, with over 80% of the deployers exhibiting a stable trajectory of low symptoms (i.e., resilience) pre- to post-deployment. Several factors predicting PTS trajectories were identified, which may direct future research aimed at decreasing the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among deployers

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A comparison of mental health outcomes in persons entering U.S. Military Service before and after September 11, 2001 Journal of Traumatic Stress 2012 Feb;25: 17-24

Wells TS, Ryan MAK, Jones KA, Hooper TI, Boyko EJ, Jacobson IG, Smith TC, Gackstetter GD, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

It is hypothesized that those who entered military service prior to September 11, 2001 might have had expectations of experiencing a regular operational tempo and less combat compared with those entering service after this date, therefore an increased risk for mental disorders. Although measuring the direct reason for entering the military was not possible for this study, the findings showed that those entering pre-September 11 did not have a higher odds of mental disorders, suggesting that mental disorders resulting from the experience of war are common across the pre- and post-September 11 accession eras.

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Examination of post-service health-related quality of life among rural and urban military members of the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Rural Social Sciences 2011;26(3):32-56

Proctor SP, Wells TS, Jones KA, Boyko EJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

In this large population-based sample of young US veterans recently separated from military service, health-related quality of life (HRQL) was not significantly different among rural and urban residents in the adjusted analyses and deployment experience did not alter the association between the outcome and rural or urban residence. These results suggest that rural status is not independently associated with HRQL among recent U.S. veterans.

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A prospective study of lupus and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to deployment in support of Iraq and Afghanistan: the Millennium Cohort Study Autoimmune Diseases 2011 Nov;741267

Jones KA, Granado NS, Smith B, Slymen DJ, Ryan MAK, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Phillips CJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Newly reported lupus was not associated with military deployment in support of the current operations in Iraq and Afghanistan when compared with nondeployers. Our study did note a significantly decreased risk of newly reported rheumatoid arthritis among deployers with and without combat exposures when compared with nondeployers; the reason for this finding is unknown, but may be due to a selection effect for deployment.

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Application of latent semantic analysis for open-ended responses in a large, epidemiologic study BMC Medical Research Methodology 2011 Oct;11:136

Leleu TD, Jacobson IG, LeardMann CA, Smith B, Foltz PW, Amoroso PJ, Derr M, Ryan MAK, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Using latent semantic analysis to analyze the final open-ended text field on the Millennium Cohort questionnaire helped identify important topic areas for future survey questions and also revealed the most common areas of concern for participants were illness and injuries, exposures, and exercise. Subjects with worse self-reported general health were more likely to provide a response in the open-ended text field than subjects with better general health.

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Linking exposures and health outcomes to a large population-based longitudinal study: the Millennium Cohort Study Military Medicine 2011 Jul;176(7 Suppl):56-63

Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Linking Millennium Cohort prospective data to individual-level exposure data is critical for understanding and quantifying any long-term health outcomes potentially associated with unique military occupational exposures.

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Headache disorders in the Millennium Cohort: epidemiology and relations with combat deployment Headache 2011 Jul-Aug;51(7);1098-1111

Jankosky C, Hooper TI, Granado NS, Scher A, Gackstetter GD, Boyko EJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Deployed personnel with reported combat exposure appear to represent a higher risk group for new-onset headache disorders. The identification of populations at higher risk for development of headache provides support for targeted interventions.

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Prospectively assessed posttraumatic stress disorder and associated physical activity Public Health Reports 2011 May/Jun;126(3):371-83

LeardMann CA, Kelton ML, Smith B, Littman AJ, Boyko EJ, Wells TS, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Nearly 90% of the Cohort participate in some level of physical activity. Engagement in physical activity, specifically vigorous activity, was associated with decreased odds of PTSD symptoms. While further research is needed, a physical activity component may be valuable to treat and/or prevent PTSD among service members.

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Preinjury psychiatric status, injury severity, and postdeployment posttraumatic stress disorder Archives of General Psychiatry 2011 May;68(5):496-504

Sandweiss DA, Slymen DJ, LeardMann CA, Smith B, White MR, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Amoroso PJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Physical injuries were significantly associated with postdeployment PTSD. Baseline psychiatric status was also significantly associated with postdeployment PTSD, irrespective of injury severity. Deployed service members who suffer from a predeployment psychiatric condition or injury while deployed may benefit from interventions targeted to prevent postdeployment PTSD or ensure early identification and treatment.

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