Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted. All links are to external sites, so please be patient while they load.

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Wells TS, Bagnell ME, Miller SC, Smith TC, Gackstetter GD and Boyko EJ for the Millennium Cohort Study Team. US Naval and Marine Corps occupations, PTSD and depression risk and absenteeism. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health. In press.

This study investigated whether military occupation was associated with PTSD or depression, and if PTSD or depression was associated with lost workdays among US Navy and US Marine personnel. Navy personnel in service and supply occupations were 85% more likely to screen positive for new-onset PTSD, while those serving in health care were 58% more likely to screen positive for new-onset depression compared to other occupations. In addition, those with new-onset and persistent PTSD were twice as likely to miss one or more days of work. This suggests that early identification and management of these conditions may improve force readiness.


Crum-Cianflone N, Bagnell ME, Schaller E, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Maynard C, Ulmer CS, Vernalis M and Smith TC. Impact of combat deployment and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on newly reported coronary heart disease among US Active Duty and Reserve forces. Circulation. In press.

This study evaluated the association of combat deployments and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on coronary heart disease among a young cohort of US service members. Experiencing combat deployment was associated with an increased odds of coronary heart disease by both self-report and medical record diagnosis after adjustment for demographic, military, and mental health characteristics. Screening positive for PTSD was not associated with CHD after adjustment. This study demonstrates that intense and acute stressful life experiences may increase the risk for coronary heart disease over a relatively short period among young adults.


Owens BD, Wolf JM, Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Ryan MAK, Gackstetter GD, Smith TC. Risk factors for lower extremity tendinopathies in military personnel. The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine. In press.

This study found that deployment was associated with the development of plantar fasciitis. Modifiable risk factors including being overweight or obese were associated with both Achilles tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis, with a marginal relationship between moderate alcohol use and Achilles tendinopathy. Identification of potential risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries among service members could serve as the focus for future prevention and intervention efforts.

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Woodall KA, Jacobson IG, Crum-Cianflone NF. Deployment experiences and motor vehicle crashes among U.S. service members. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2014;46(4):350358..

Findings indicate experiencing combat during deployment and multiple deployments are strong predictors for a motor vehicle crash (MVC) within the first six months of returning home from deployments in support of Iraq and Afghanistan among U.S. military members. These data provide critical information for targeting prevention strategies to decrease MVCs among personnel postdeployment.


Hoge CW, LeardMann CA, Boyko EJ. Suicides Among Military Personnel Reply. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2013 Dec;310(23):2565-2566.

Discusses the complexity of suicidal behaviors and some challenges related to this type of research, while highlighting the strengths of using data from the Millennium Cohort to study suicide.

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The Millennium Cohort Study is a Department of Defense research project at the DoD Center for Deployment Health Research, located in San Diego, California. Note DMDC Reference Number 00-0019, RCS Number DD-HA(AR)2106, OMB Approval Number 0720-0029, ASD/HA/TMA Protocol Number CDO-06-206, and Primary IRB Protocol Number NHRC.2000.0007

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