The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted. All links are to external sites, so please be patient while they load.

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Smith TS, LeardMann CA, Smith B, Jacobson IG, Miller SC, Wells TS, Boyko EJ, Ryan MAK. Longitudinal assessment of mental disorders, smoking, and hazardous drinking among a population-based cohort of U.S. service members. Journal of Addiction Medicine. In press.

This study investigated mental disorders in association with hazardous drinking and cigarette smoking. These prospective data highlight the inter-related nature of these symptoms and behaviors and the potentially complex bi-directional causal pathway. Military health professionals should consider the constellation of potential behaviors and symptoms during the treatment of specific mental health illnesses and negative health behaviors.

Littman AJ, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Smith TC. Changes in meeting physical activity guidelines after discharge from the military. Journal of Physical Activity Health. In press.

Using data from Millennium Cohort Study participants, we investigated changes in meeting federal Physical Activity Guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) following military discharge. MVPA declined more in those who were discharged than those who were not (-17.8 percentage points vs. -2.7 percentage points), with greater declines in former active-duty personnel, those who had deployed with combat exposures, had 14-25 years of service, and had been discharged more recently (<1 year prior). Reductions in MVPA were substantial and unexpected. Increased understanding of transitional periods that may benefit from interventions to mitigate declines in physical activity will help prevent excess weight gain and physical inactivity-associated health consequences.

Owens BD, Wolf JM, Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Ryan MAK, Gackstetter GD, Smith TC. Risk factors for lower extremity tendinopathies in military personnel. The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine. In press.

This study found that deployment was associated with the development of plantar fasciitis. Modifiable risk factors including being overweight or obese were associated with both Achilles tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis, with a marginal relationship between moderate alcohol use and Achilles tendinopathy. Identification of potential risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries among service members could serve as the focus for future prevention and intervention efforts.

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Crum-Cianflone N, Bagnell ME, Schaller E, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Maynard C, Ulmer CS, Vernalis M and Smith TC. Impact of combat deployment and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on newly reported coronary heart disease among US Active Duty and Reserve forces. Circulation. 2014;129:1813-1820.

This study evaluated the association of combat deployments and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on coronary heart disease among a young cohort of US service members. Experiencing combat deployment was associated with an increased odds of coronary heart disease by both self-report and medical record diagnosis after adjustment for demographic, military, and mental health characteristics. Screening positive for PTSD was not associated with CHD after adjustment. This study demonstrates that intense and acute stressful life experiences may increase the risk for coronary heart disease over a relatively short period among young adults.

Wells TS, Bagnell ME, Miller SC, Smith TC, Gackstetter GD and Boyko EJ for the Millennium Cohort Study Team. US Naval and Marine Corps occupations, PTSD and depression risk and absenteeism. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health. In press.

This study investigated whether military occupation was associated with PTSD or depression, and if PTSD or depression was associated with lost workdays among US Navy and US Marine personnel. Navy personnel in service and supply occupations were 85% more likely to screen positive for new-onset PTSD, while those serving in health care were 58% more likely to screen positive for new-onset depression compared to other occupations. In addition, those with new-onset and persistent PTSD were twice as likely to miss one or more days of work. This suggests that early identification and management of these conditions may improve force readiness.

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The Millennium Cohort Study is a Department of Defense research project at the DoD Center for Deployment Health Research, located in San Diego, California. Note DMDC Reference Number 00-0019, RCS Number DD-HA(AR)2106, OMB Approval Number 0720-0029, ASD/HA/TMA Protocol Number CDO-06-206, and Primary IRB Protocol Number NHRC.2000.0007

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